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The life cycle of bruises in older adults

Mosqueda, L., Burnight, K., & Liao, S. (2005). The life cycle of bruises in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society53(8), 1339-1343.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES:

To summarize the occurrence, progression, and resolution of accidentally acquired bruises in a sample of adults aged 65 and older. The systematic documentation of accidentally occurring bruises in older adults could provide a foundation for comparison when considering suspicious bruising in older adults.

DESIGN:

Between April 2002 and August 2003, a convenience sample of 101 seniors was examined daily at home (up to 6 weeks) to document the occurrence, progression, and resolution of accidental bruises that occurred during the observation period.

SETTING:

Three community-based settings and two skilled nursing facilities in Orange County, California.

PARTICIPANTS:

One hundred one adults aged 65 and older (mean age=83).

MEASUREMENTS:

Age, sex, ethnicity, functional status, handedness, medical conditions, medications, cognitive status, depression, history of falls, bruise size, bruise location, initial bruise color, color change over time.

RESULTS:

Nearly 90% of the bruises were on the extremities. There were no bruises on the neck, ears, genitalia, buttocks, or soles of the feet. Subjects were more likely to know the cause of the bruise if the bruise was on the trunk. Contrary to the common perception that yellow coloration indicates an older bruise, 16 bruises were predominately yellow within the first 24 hours after onset. People on medications known to affect coagulation pathways and those with compromised function were more likely to have multiple bruises.

CONCLUSION:

Accidental bruises occur in a predictable location pattern in older adults. One cannot reliably predict the age of a bruise by its color.

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Special Thanks to Judith D. Tamkin

We are sincerely appreciative to Judith D. Tamkin for her gift to help establish the USC Center on Elder Mistreatment’s website. Her deep and personal commitment to eradicating elder abuse is helping to reshape our understanding of elder abuse and ultimately save innumerable older adults from abuse and neglect.